Nail Disorders: A Medical Dictionary

5 November 2019:

It’s an anomaly where the baby is born without finger/toe nails.

Beau’s lines:
These are deep grooved lines that run from side to side on the finger nail or the toe nail. Look like indentation or ridges in the nail plate.

Blue Nails:
It is a blue discolouration of the lunulae of the nail.

It is a proliferative change in the soft tissues of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes which causes them to become enlarged and the nails to curve downwards (like an down spoon shaped)

Green Nails:
It is change of nail manifested with thickened, green discolouration or fingernails with brittle edges, distorted shape of the nail, crumbling of nail around the edges which has foul smelling debris under the nail.swelling and and pain of the nail bed.

Half and Half nails:
It is condition in which menifested with the proximal portion of the nail white and the fistal half red, pink or brown, with a sharp line off demarcation between the two halves.
Synonym: Brown arcs, Lindsay nails.

Hang Nail:
It is a condition where excess skin exists around the nail and partially detaches from the nail due to overextension of the eponychium and is painful, annoying and looks unattractive as well.

This is a condition manifested with thinning and softening of the nails resulting in bending and breaking of the free edge which give rise to longitudinal fissures.
Synonym: Eggshell nail

This is a spoon-shaped deformity or dystrophy of the fingernails which is manifested with softening and thinning and gives rise to flattening or concavities with raised edges of the nail plate.

It’s a condition where whitish discoloration of the nails. May be totally/partially.

Median nail Dystrophy:
It is a nail dystrophy which consists of a longitudinal split in the middle of the nail plate running from the cuticle to the free edge.
Synonym: Heller dystrophy

Mee’s lines:
It is a nail condition manifested with horizontal white bands of the nail plate.

It is the brown or black pigmentation of the nail unit with presence of melanin in the nail plate.

It is a condition menifested with abnormal smalness of nails of the fingers and toes.

Nail-Patella syndrome:
It is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder which results in small, poorly developed nails accompanied by numerous anomalies and characterized by the absence or hypoplasia of the patella.
Synonym : Onychoostedysplasia, Fong syndrome, Turner-kiser syndrome

It is an abnormal thickening with overgrowth of the nail in any direction which is observed both in nails of the fingers and the toes. Thickening of the nail plate in the finger/toe which is greater in the distal part with white or yellowish discolouration.

It is an inflammation of the matrix of a nail which leads to suppuration and loss of the nail.

It is a condition manifested as breaking of the fingernails or toenails.

Toenails : Great toe is most commonly involved where the lateral side is more commonly affected than the medial side.
Synonym: Ingrown nail

It is a nail disorder which is commonly seen in neglected elderly individuals manifested as thickened, distorted, opaque, yellow-brown thick toenails which curve giving them a clawlike appearance.

It is a nail disorder charecterized by a spontaneous separation of the nail plate which starts at the distal free margin and progresses proximally.

It is a nail condition manifested with complete shedding of a fingernail or toe nail which begins at it’s proximal end and is usually associated with a systemic illness.

It is a condition manifested with abnormal softness of the nails.

It is a subungual lesion that is clinically characterized by banded or diffuse thickening, yellowish discoloration, splinter hge and transverse on curvature of the nail plate.

It is a fungal infection of nail both fingernails and toenails which involves any component of the nail unit including the nail matrix, nail bed or nail plate.

It’s a common obsessive and compulsive behaviour which leads to nail bitting and markedly shortens the nail plate, including the nail bed.

It is a nail condition which is manifested with a localized diffuse hyperkeratotic tissue on the lateral or proximal nail folds, within the space between the nail folds and the nail plate.

It is a lamellar dystrophy of nail manifested with transverse splitting of the nail plate into layers at or near the free edge in fingers and toes.

It is an uncommon compulsive neurosis manifested as an uncontrolled desire to pick or tear the finger or toenails which may cause deformity of nails.

It is a condition manifested with longitudinal striation of the nail plate associated with brittleness and breakage of the nails.
Extreme dryness is a common cause of brittle nails which are more common in elderly individuals.

Pachyonychia congenita:
It is characterized by dystrophic, thickened nails, elevation of nail plates.

Soft tissue infection around the nails caused by infectious agents, and may be acute or chronic with separate entities.

It is a autosomal-dominant condition of the nail manifested with an abnormally flat and broad nail which may have multiple nail abnormalities in many members of a large family.

Pincer Nail:
It is a dystrophic toenail disorder in which the lateral edges of the nail slowly aprroach one another compressing the nail bed and underlying dermis.
Synonym :Omega nail, Trumpet nail, Involuted nail.

It is a condition manifested with presence of supernumerary nails on the fingers and toes.

Pterygium nail:
It is an inflammatory destructive process with fusion between the nail fold and underlying nail bed and matrix where a fibrotic band obstructs normal nail growth.

Splinter Haemorrhage:
It is a condition charecterized by small hge which appear as narrow, red to reddish brown lines of blood beneath, which look like splinters beneath the fingernail or toenails.
Synonym: Fingernail Hge

Stippled nails:
It is a nail change characterized by small, pinpoint depressions in an otherwise normal nail.

Terry’s nail:
This is a nail deformity manifested with a white, ground-glass like opacity which is distinct white discolouration of the nail bed proximally to the distal 1-2mm of the distal edge.This leaves an exaggerated pink-brown discolouration at the free edge of the nail.

It’s a nail disorder manifested as increased longitudinal ridging with roughness and thinning of the nail causing 20nails dystrophy associated with proximal nail matrix damage.

Racquet Nail:
It is an apparently inherited autosomal-dominant trait characterized by widened and flattened end of the thumb and the nail plate is flattened as well with loss of distal phalanx which is abnormally short.
Synonym: Brachyonychia

Yellow nail syndrome :
It is rare disorder of the nail with marked thickening and yellow to yellowish-green discolouration of the nail which is over-curved both traseversely and longitudinally giving rise to onycholysis, loss of both lunulae and cuticles.

Dr. Tania Hafiz
Z.H. Sikder Women’s Medical College (2003-04)

Staff Reporter/Jannat Binte Hossain


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