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January 26, 2015 5:43 pm

প্রকাশকঃ

Genetics

Structure and function of chromosomes and genes
Principle of inheritance of chromosomal and genetic disorders
Ex:
– Inherited diseases
– Chromosome structure
– Common chromosome abnormalities

Cell, molecular and membrane biology

Structure and function of the components of the cell and its membrane
How cells communicate internally and with each other by means of chemical substances and membrane receptors.
Ex:
– Function of intracellular organelles
– Cellular communication

Anatomy

Clinical relevant anatomy including neuroanatomy
Ex:
– Peripheral nerve lesions
– Cranial nerve abnormalities
– Dermatomes, myotomes and reflexes

Physiology, biochemistry and metabolism

Structure and function of the different organs and their interaction (such as hormonal and neural influences)
Broad principle of metabolism such as the production of energy and pathways of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism
Principle of nutrition, water, electrolyte and acid base balance.
Physiology and biochemistry of each organ system
Ex:
– The mechanism of blood pressure control
– Acid-base balance

Immunology

Principles of immuno-mechanisms
Ex:
– Humoral and cell-mediated immunity
– Immunodeficiency syndromes
– Phagocytic dysfunction diseases
– Complement deficiencies
– Hypersensitivities including allergies and autoimmune diseases
Immunological tests:
– Immune system in health and disease
Ex:
– Common immunological laboratory tests
– Evaluation of patients with immune disease
– Intercellular communication and signal transduction
– Lymphocyte and phagocytic cell biology
– Antigen presentation
– Humoral, cellular and mucosal immunity including Th2 and TH2 responses
– Inflammation
– Complement system and cytokines
– Hypersensitivity and autoimmunity
Clinical condition
– Various immunodeficiency syndromes
Ex:
– Mechanisms of immunodeficiency
– Antibody immunodeficiency disorders
– T-cell immunodeficiency disorders
– Combined antibody and cellular immunodeficiency disorders
– Phagocytic dysfunction diseases
– Complement deficiencies

– Clinical characteristics and immediate management of acute allergic emergencies
Ex:
– Anaphylaxis
– Angio-oedema
– Urticaria

– Immunology as applied with other medical diseases (ex: Rheumatic diseases – connective tissue diseases)
Ex:
– Rheumatic diseases (connective tissue disease)
– Endocrine diseases (thyroid autoimmune diseases, diabetes mellitus, Addison’s disease)
– Haematological diseases (pernicious anaemia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura)
– Gastrointestinal diseases (Coleiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatobiliary diseases)
– Renal diseases (Goodpasture’s syndrome, immune-complex glomerulonephritis)
– Dermatological diseases (demyelinating diseases, myasthenic syndromes)
Management
– Principles of immunosuppressive therapy including major indications and side-effects
Ex:
– Immunosupressive drug therapy
– Intravenous immunoglobulin
– Monoclonal antibodies
– Cytokine therapy
– Bone marrow transplantation
– Principle of immunisation
– Vaccines currently in use

Infectious diseases and tropical medicine

Microbiology
– Taxonomy of bacteria in terms of Gram-straining and aerobic /anaerobic metabolism
– Virus classification for members of the herpes group
– Virus replication with reference to the retroviruses
– Major pathogenic protozoa and helminths
Ex:
-Aerobic or anaerobic bacteria
-Gram-staining characteristics of bacteria

Immunology of infectious diseases
– Immune deficiency states linked with types of opportunistic infections
– Principle of immunisation and vaccines currently used
Ex:
– Opportunistic infections
– Immunisation policy

Pathophysiology
– Septic shock
– ARDS
– Role of cytokines in infection

Epidemiology
– Principles relevant to infectious diseases
Ex:
– Mechanisms of transmission of pathogens
– How epidemics happen
– Knowledge of carrier states, reservoirs, vectors and zoonoses
– Elementary concepts of the control of communicable diseases (including immunisation, isolation, contact tracing, chemoprophylaxis of close contacts)
– Geographical variation in diseases including TB, HIV, Hepatitis B, malaria

Treatment
– Broad indications for commonly employed antimicrobial agents
– Major adverse effects for commonly employed antimicrobial agents
Ex:
– B-lactams
– Tetracyclines
– Macrolides
– Aminoglycosides
– Quinolines
– Trimethoprim
– Metronidazole
– Antituberculous drugs
– Antimalarial drugs
– Antiviral agents

Specific infections
– Characteristics, recognition, prevention, eradication, and pathological effects of all commonly encountered bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, fungi, protozoa, parasites and toxins.
– Principle of infection control
– Differential diagnostic and appropriate investigations
– Presumptive therapies indications
Ex:
– Septicaemia
– Meningitis and encephalitis
– Endocarditis
– Pneumonia (community-acquired, hospital-acquired, lung abscess, empyema)
– Tuberculosis
– PUO (appropriate investigations, when empirical therapy might be indicated)
– Soft-tissue infection and Osteomyelitis
– Streptococcal infection, rheumatic fever, nephritis
– Intra-abdominal sepsis
– Food-poisoning
– Tropical Infections (especially malaria, bilharzias, amoebiasis, filariasis, leishmaniasis, hookworm and viral haemorrhagic fevers)
– Viral hepatitis
– HIV/AIDS (course of typical infection, CD4 count and HIV viral load as markers of progression; main opportunistic infections including Pneumocytis pneumonia, CNS toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculosis)
– Glandular fever syndrome and its differentiation from HIV seroconversion illness
– Spirochaetosis – syphilis, leptospirosis, borrelia
– Toxic shock syndrome and staphylococcal infections

Statistics, Epidemiology and Evidence-based medicine

Descriptive statistics
– Mean, median, mode, standard deviation, standard error, confidence interval, variance
– Range, quartile, inter-quartile range, percentile
– Skewness
– Contingency table, population
– Missing values
– Outliers

Graphical techniques
– Histogram
– Box-plot
– Scattergram
Inferential techniques
– Null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis
– Parametric and non-parametric tests
– Normal distribution
– Type 1 and type 2 errors
– False positive and false negative
– Statistical power
– One and two tailed tests
– Statistical significance, P value
– T-test
– Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon test
– Chi-square test for 2 x 2 contingency table
– Correlation (Pearson’s and Spearman’s)
– Linear regression
– Study design
Evidence based medicine
– General understanding of evidence-based management and applications to management of patients
Clinical trials
– Interpretation of simple clinical trial data
– Randomisation
– Placebo-controlled trial
– Open trial
– Single-blind trial
– Double-blind trial
– Intention-to-treat
– Bias

Clinical haematology

Physiology, control and function of formed blood elements
Bone marrow structure and function
Applications of biochemistry, genetics, immunology and virology to blood disorders
Effects of age and pregnancy on blood diseases
Splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and their causes
Principles and hazards of blood and blood product replacement therapy
Principles, but not detail, of anti-tumour chemotherapy
Principles of marrow transplantation
Adverse effects of drugs on the blood
Iron metabolism
– Physiology of iron, including its absorption
– Iron overload
– Iron deficiency states including diagnostic, causes and treatment
– Iron metabolism, including anaemias of chronic disorders and sideroblastic anaemias
Megaloblastic anaemias
– Physiology of vitamin B12 and folic acid – Mechanisms and investigation of deficiencies and their management
Haemolytic anaemias
– Mechanisms of shortened red cell survival
– Feature and management of congenital and acquired haemolytic states
– Molecular pathology of thalassaemia and common haemoglobinopathies
Ex:
– Causes of haemolysis
– Diagnostic of haemolytic anaemia
Other anaemias
– Anaemias complicating systemic disease
– Aplastic anaemia
– Myelodysplastic syndromes
Polycythaemia and myeloproliferative disorders
– Causes, investigation and management of polycythaemia
– Causes, investigation and management of myeloproliferative disorders
White cells disorders
– Physiology of leucocytes
– Leucocytosis and leucopenia
– Acute and chronic leukaemias, including diagnosis, management and prognosis
– Lymphoproliferative diseases including Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and plasma cell dyscrasias.
Disorders of haemostasis
– Platelet function and coagulation
– Thrombocytopenia and impaired platelet function
– Thrombocytosis
– Common congenital and acquired disorders of coagulation (especially anticoagulant therapy and disseminated intravascular coagulation)

Clinical pharmacology, therapeutics and clinical toxicology

Pharmacology
– Mechanisms by which drugs produce their pharmacological effects
– Basic principles of agonism and antagonism
– Clinical implication of drugs that act at different receptor sites
– Links between the pharmacological effects of drugs at the molecular level, the cellular level, and the tissue / organ level, and how these are affected by disease processes and other drugs
– Principles by which both therapeutic and adverse effects occur
Clinical pharmacokinetics
– Processes of drug absorption and distribution
– Bio-transformation and excretion
– Concepts of drug half-life and clearance
– First order and zero order kinetics
Monitoring drug therapy
– Direct measurement of therapeutic response
– Measurement of plasma drug concentrations
– Scientific basis for the measurement of drug concentration and its link to the principles of pharmacokinetics
Adverse drug reactions
– Epidemiology of adverse drug reactions: recognition and avoidance
– Important adverse effects of commonly used drugs
– Importance of adverse drug reaction reporting schemes
Drug interactions
– Adverse drug interactions and mechanisms by which interaction may occur
– Common drug interactions and their clinical consequences
Pharmacogenetics
– Principles of pharmacogenetics and its importance in determining variations in response to drugs in man, both in term of efficacy and toxicity
– Clinical consequences of the common pharmacogenetic variations relevant to clinical practice
Therapeutics for specific patient groups
– Principles of therapeutics as they apply in the following circumstances:
— The elderly
— Pregnancy and breast feeding
— Patients with renal disease
— Patients with hepatic disease
—– Effects of these altered physiology on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs
—– Principle underlying drug choice, in pregnancy and breast feeding
—– Teratogenic effects of drugs that may be used in pregnancy – Drugs that may produce toxicity in the case of renal and hepatic disease
Clinical toxicology
– Principle of management of patients poisoned by drugs or other toxic substances
– Assessment, recognition of common symptom patterns
– Principles of removal of toxic substances
– Antidotes where these approaches may be appropriate
Criteria for selecting drugs in a therapeutic class
– Criteria used to select a drug from among drugs in a popular therapeutic class including:
— Differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
— The approved indications of the drug
— Possible adverse effects or drug inteactions
— Cost effectiveness
—– Nomenclature
—– Used to describing studies that may be used to underpin drug selection
Drug formulations and routes of administration
– Various formulations of medicines available
– Routes by which medicines may be administered
– Advantages and disadvantages of various routes and preparation
– Most appropriate formulation selection and drug administration in common clinical scenarios

Rheumatology

Basic principles of the common musculoskeletal conditions
Clinical science
– Basic physiology, biochemistry, anatomy and pathology relating to musculoskeletal diseases
– Pathology of the common rheumatic conditions
Clinical conditions
– Relative prevalence and major associations of the common rheumatological conditions
– Symptoms and signs of the rheumatic diseases
– Arthritis associated with other medical conditions
Investigations
– Investigations relevant to the diagnosis and assessment of rheumatic diseases including
– Acute phase proteins
– Immunological tests relating to the connective tissue diseases
– Contemporary imaging techniques
Management
– Management of acute rheumatological emergencies including Septic arthritis, Osteomyelitis, temporal arteritis and acute spinal cord compression
– Management of rheumatic diseases

index

Cardiology

Anatomy and physiology
– Basic anatomy and physiology of the heart in health and disease including:
— Clinical relevant normal anatomy of the heart, coronary arteries and great vessels
— Determinants of the heart rate and rhythm
— Cardiac conduction
— Cardiac output
—Vascular tone
— Blood pressure
— Coronary blood flow
— Genesis of heart sound
Pathophysiology and pathology
– Mechanism underlying the main pathological processes
Ex:
— Thrombosis
— Infarction
— Atherogenesis
— Hypertrophy
—Heart failure
— Cardiomyopathies
— Dysrhythmias
— Hypertension
Cell biology
– Topics of proven clinical relevance such as:
— Excitation-contraction process
— Molecular and cellular aspects of hypertrophy of the myocardium of vascular smooth muscle
Clinical pharmacology
– Indications of drug therapy in cardiac disease
– Actions, interactions, and side effects of the drugs used, with emphasis on new drugs and newly observed side effects.
Clinical cardiology
– Clinical features and management of the cardiac disorders encountered in hospital practice by the general physician
– Risk factors
Ex:
— Clinical features of constrictive pericarditis, cardiac tamponade, endocarditis, valvular disease
— Management of acute coronary syndromes
— Management of cardiac failure
—Management issues in atrial fibrillation
— Indications for, and types of, permanent pacemaker
– Important changes in clinical practice, following the publication of major clinical trials
Ex:
— Use of ACE inhibitors after myocardial infarction
— Use of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors in primary and secondary prevention of coronary morbidity and mortality
— Use of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs in left ventricular dysfunction
– Indications for invasive and non-invasive cardiac investigation
– Principle of these investigative methods, their limitations and the clinical relevance
Ex:
— Common ECG abnormalities
—Basic echocardiographic abnormalities such as hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy or pericardial effusion
— Indication for coronary angiography

Respiratory medicine

Anatomy and physiology
– Clinical relevant anatomy of the upper and lower respiratory tract and thorax including radiological anatomy
– Principles of respiratory physiology including: How respiration is controlled
— Principles of gas exchange and oxygen transport
— Ventilation-perfusion relationships
— Lung volumes and transfer factor
—Respiratory aspects of sleep and exercise physiology
– Physical, humoral and cellular aspects of respiratory defence mechanisms
– Physiology of the proteinase inhibitors and pulmonary surfactant
Pathophysiology and pathology
– Effects of disease on pulmonary physiology and anatomy including:
— The pulmonary and bronchial circulations as gas exchange
— Adaptations to chronic hypoxaemia
— Pleural fluid production and reabsorption
– Application of the basic immunological processes to pulmonary pathology including:
— Asthma
—Alveolitis
— Tuberculosis
– Humoral and cellular immunodeficiency states and sequelae
– Microbiology of acute and chronic respiratory infections
Cell biology and genetics
– Lung inflammation and repair
– Vasculitis
– Cystic fibrosis
– Anti-protease deficiency
Clinical pharmacology
– Indications for, and mechanisms of action of, drugs used in respiratory disease together with their interactions and side effects.
– Important respiratory complications of other drugs (NSAIDs and beta blockers)
Clinical conditions
– Clinical features, investigation and management of respiratory disease likely to be encountered by a general physician
Ex:
— Pleural effusion
— Chest pain
—Haemoptysis
— Breathlessness
– Impact of systemic disease on the respiratory system
Ex:
— Vasculitis
— Neuromuscular disease
—HIV infection
– Occupational lung disease, particularly asthma, pneumoconiosis and asbestos related disease
– Assessment of respiratory malignant condition
– General principles of oncological management including indication of surgery Indications for specialised investigations including bronchoscopy, CT scanning, lung biopsy, lung volumes and exercise testing
– Investigation of sleep related disorders and of the radiological aspects of respiratory diseases
– Indications for, and problems of, lung transplantation
– Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection·
—Exclusion
– Knowledge of detailed pulmonary mechanics, oncology drug regimens, drug therapy of environmental mycobacterial infection, inhalation drug kinetics, and detailed histological descriptions is not required.

Neurology

Neuroanatomy
– Detailed Neuroanatomy to appreciate the localisation of a particular neurological problem
Ex:
— Clinical features of a lesion within the cavernous sinus
— Manifestations o a particular nerve root or peripheral nerve disorder
— Organisation of pathways within the spinal cord
Neurophysiology
– Aspects of Neurophysiology relevant to the understanding of neurological disease
Ex:
– Formation, circulation, absorption and content of the cerebrospinal fluid
– Aspect of cerebral blood flow
– Principles of nerve conduction and its modification by disease processes
Neurogenetics
– Recent advances in the understanding of the genetic basis for various neurological disorders
Cell biology
– Advances in the cellular mechanisms of certain neurological disease processes which have provided better understanding of disease mechanisms and which might, in the future, lead to more rational therapy
Neuropharmacology
– New drug developments in neurology
– Established drug therapies
Ex:
— Role of some recently introduced anticonvulsants
— Present status of immunosuppressant therapy in multiple sclerosis
Neuropathology
– Pathological aspects of some common diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease
Clinical neurology
– Common disorders
– Clinical features which have been shown to be of diagnostic value
– Areas of recent advance, particularly those which have either led to better definition of disease entities, or have led to their improved management
Ex:
— Epidemiological aspects, in particular the risk factors for stroke
— The evidence for the role of anti-platelet agents in transient ischaemic attacks
– The role of carotid endarterectomy in the management of stroke patients

Psychiatry

Mental state
– Conduct and scope of a mental state examination
– Features of abnormal mental states and particularly those present commonly to physicians and to Accident and Emergency Departments
Aetiological factors in psychiatric illness
– Primary aetiological factors in psychiatric areas including:
—Genetic factors
—Environmental factors
—Life events
Investigations
– Potential value of, and indications for, common investigations used in psychiatric illness including:
—Psychometric testing
—EEG
—Brain imaging
Syndromes of psychiatric disorder and their treatment
– Organic brain syndromes (delirium, dementia, focal brain syndromes, head injury)
– Schizophrenia and related syndromes – Paranoid disorders and related syndromes
– Affective disorders (anxiety states, phobic disorders, bipolar affective disorders)
– Grief and bereavement
– Self-harm, attempted suicide, suicide
– Substance misuse (including alcohol dependence)
– Eating disorders
– Obsessive compulsive disorder
– Abnormal illness behaviour
– Syndromes associated with medically explained physical symptoms (including somatization and somatoform syndrome)
Psychiatric aspects of physical disease
– Psychiatric presentation of physical disease including:
—Endocrine and metabolic disorders
—Toxic states
—AIDS
—Neurological disease
—Epilepsy
—Pain
Mental retardation
– Features of the commoner syndromes

Gastroenterology

Clinical science
– Structure and function of the gastrointestinal and hepatobilary tract
– Neurohormonal control of gut motility
– Secretory and absorptive functions of the gastro-intestinal tract and liver
– Symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases
– Genetics of the more common gastrointestinal and liver disorders
– Clinical pharmacology of drugs used in gastrointestinal disorders including their actions, interactions and adverse effects
Clinical nutrition
– Nutritional requirements in health
– Assessment of nutritional status
– Nutritional deficiency states
– Primary nutritional disorders
Disorders of the mouth, tongue and salivary glands
– Mouth ulcers, periodontal and salivary disorders
– Oral manifestations of systemic and dermatological disorders
Disorders of the oesophagus and stomach
– Alchalasia
– Carcinomas
– Peptic ulceration
– Gastritis
– Gastrointestinal haemorrhage
Functional disorders
– Functional chest pain and functional dyspepsia
– Irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain
– Functional constipation and diarrhoea
Disorders of the small intestine
– Malabsoption syndromes and gluten enteropathy
– Hormone-secreting tumours of the gut
Disorders of the liver, biliary tree and pancreas
– Bilirubin metabolism and the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids
– Causes of jaundice and cholestasis
– Common pancreatic disorders including carcinoma
– Fulminant liver failure
– Acute and chronic hepatitis
– Drugs, toxins, alcohol and the liver
The acute abdomen
– Perforated viscus and peritonitis
– Intestinal obstruction
– Ischaemic disease of the small and large bowel
Inflammatory bowel diseases
– Crohn’s disease
– Ulcerative colitis
– Infective gastroenteritis
– Parasitic and protozoal gut infections
Colorectal disorders
– Polyps
– Carcinomas
– Diverticular disease
– Anorectal disorders
Endocrinology
Mechanisms of hormone action and importance of
Receptors and substances involved in control of intracellular metabolism
Clinically relevant anatomical aspects of the speciality

Thyroid
– Mechanisms of thyroid disease
– Clinical presentation and treatment
Ex:
—Thyroid hormone biosynthesis and its control
—Important drugs interfering with thyroid function
—Indications for use of various types of thyroid function test
—Autoimmunity and the thyroid
—Clinical features of thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism
—Goitre and its management
—Thyroid neoplasia
Hypothalamus/Pituitary
– Physiology and testing of the control mechanisms of the endocrine system
Ex:
—The physiology and Pathophysiology of control of pituitary hormone secretion
—The mechanisms of maintaining plasma osmolality
—Tests of pituitary diseases such as acromegaly, prolactinoma and Cushing’s syndrome
—Drugs used in the treatment of pituitary disease
—Pituitary replacement therapy
Adrenal
– Clinically relevant mechanisms of steroid biosynthesis
Ex:
—Build-up of precursor compounds when there is defective cortisol biosynthesis in adrenocortical hyperplasia
—Tests for adrenocortical function
—Endocrine causes of hypertension and their differential diagnosis
—Clinical features and management of adrenal hyper- and hypofunction
—Complications of steroid therapy
Ovary
– Physiology of ovarian functions
– Conditions presenting to a physician
Ex:
—Hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle
—Physiological changes in pregnancy
—The differential diagnosis of hirsutism and virilism
—Causes of amenorrhoea and anovulation
—Endocrine causes of infertility
Testis
– Relevant investigations of urological infertility
– Endocrine aspects of testicular functions
Growth
– Factors controlling growth hormone secretion
– Normal growth patterns
– General medical and endocrine causes of short stature
– Control of excessive growth
– Growth hormone therapy and its complications
Parathyroid/bone
– Control of bone turnover and disorders which can result of its failure
Ex:
—Control of calcium metabolism
—Laboratory tests of parathyroid function
—The causes of hypercalcaemia
—Mechanisms of oesteomalacia
—Hyperparathyroidism, both primary and secondary
—The differentiation of primary, secondary and pseudo-hypoparathyroidism
—The differentiation of primary, secondary and pseudo-hypoparathyroidism
—The prophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis
—Calcitonin and its role in metabolism
Diabetes mellitus
– Detailed knowledge is required.
Ex:
—Control of carbohydrate metabolism
—Genetics of diabetes
—Aetiology of type I diabetes and type 2 diabetes
—Long-term complications of diabetes
—Management of diabetic emergencies
—Differential diagnosis and treatment of hypoglycaemia
Disorders of lipid metabolism
– Importance of this group disorder
Ex:
—Control of cholesterol metabolism
—Aetiology of different types of hyperlipidaemia including both cholesterol and triglyceride disorders
—Indications for lipid lowering agents and their complications
—Types of secondary hyperlipidaemia
Nephrology
Physiology
– Discrete functions of Glomerular ultrafiltration and tubular function
– Proximal and distal parts of the nephron, with particular reference to control of water and electrolyte balance
– Renal tubular acidosis
– Cystinuria
– Fluid, electrolyte, and acid-balance disturbances
Molecular biology and genetics
– Genetic defects of common disorders including:
—Polycystic kidney
—Alport’s syndrome
—Hypophosphataemic rickets
– Inflammatory injury of the kidney mediated by various cytokines factors
Glomerular and tubular disorders
– Glomerular ultra structure based upon techniques of light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence as applied to renal biopsy
– Primary Glomerular disorders as in idiopathic glomerulonephritis, and nephropathies of systemic diseases
Ex:
—Diabetes mellitus
—SLE
—Hypertensive nephrosclerosis
—Vasculitis
—Amyloidosis
– Interstitial nephritis, in particular vase s with reversible aetiology such as drug, heavy metals and analgesics
– Metabolic sequelae of acute nephrotic and nephritic syndromes
– Investigation and assessment of Glomerular and tubular disorders, including ultrasonic studies and nuclear medicine
– Disturbed renal and metabolic functions in nephritic syndrome from a variety of causes
Infections of the kidney
– Management of urinary tract infections including their detention, predisposing factors, prevention, and treatment
– Anatomical abnormalities leading to repeated urinary tract infection
Ex:
—Reflux nephropathy
—Prostatic hypertrophy
– Other infections that might affect the kidney by direct invasion or by immune-complex deposition
Calculus formation within the urinary tract
– Metabolic disorders predisposing to stone formation, their investigation, prevention and treatment
Ex:
—Idiopathic hypercalciuria
—Primary Hyperparathyroidism
—Cystinuria
—Hyperoxaluria · Acute and chronic renal failure
– Management of acute and chronic renal failure and of disturbed physiology involved
– Pathophysiological changes and non-dialytic treatment in different stages of progressive renal failure
– Principle of nutritional requirements and diatery intervention for patients with chronic renal failure
– Other therapeutic means to slow down the progression of renal failure
Hypertension and renal problems in pregnancy
– Renal adaptation to pregnancy
– Management and profylaxis of renal disease and hypertension in pregnancy
Drug and the kidney
– Role of the kidney in the normal elimination of drugs
– Mechanisms by which drugs cause nephrotoxic damage
– Principle of dose adjustment according to residual renal function
Renal replacement therapy
– Different dialysis modalities and their complications
– Complications related to immunosuppressive therapy following renal transplantation





Dermatology
Basic science
– Structure and function of the epidermis and dermis
Clinical dermatology
– Recognition of cutaneous symptoms and signs of systemic diseases (diseases affecting internal organs and presenting skin signs or symptoms)
Ex:
—Collagen vascular disease such as SLE, systemic sclerosis
—Metabolic and endocrine disorders
—Infectious diseases
—Cancers
—Leukaemias
—Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases
—Common inherited diseases such as neurofibromatosis
– Main dermatological complications of therapeutic immunosuppression (ex: systemic corticosteroid therapy, cyclosporin…) or of diseases such as HIV which cause immunosuppression
– Differential diagnosis and plan of investigation of patients whom, present with the following cutaneous signs or symptoms which may indicate internal diseases:
—Itch
—Hyperpigmentation
—Generalised erythema
—Loss of hair
—Increased hair growth
—Common patterns of nail dystrophy such as clubbing
—Erythema nodosum
—Erythema multiform
—Purpura
—Ulceration
—Vasculitis
– Clinical features of the following skin diseases:
—Psoriasis
—Eczema
—Urticaria
—Superficial fungal infections (dermatophytosis, pityriasis versicolor)
—Common skin cancers such as melanoma
—Vitiligo and alopecia areata
—Pemphigus and pemphigold
—Cutaneous herpes virus infections (herpes simplex, varicella zoster)
—Cutaneous staphylococcal and streptococcal infections
—Leprosy · Investigation
– Principles of dermatological investigation such as patch testing
Drugs and therapy
– Drugs which cause life-threatening skin conditions such as
—Erythroderma
—Stevens-Johnson syndrome,
—Angio-oedema
—Toxic epidermal necrolysis

DR. YEASIN ARAFAT

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পোষ্টট্যাগঃ Medicine, mrcp, uk,

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